Chemistry SPM 2010 Paper 3

Question 1:
  • Reactivity of Group 1 elements with water
Question 2:
  • The role of water towards the acidic properties of ethanoic acid
Question 3:
  • The effect of copper(II) sulphate on the rate of reaction between metal and acid


Chemistry SPM 2010 Paper 2

Section A

Question 1 : (Chapter 2: The Structure of Atom)
  • State of matter
  • Conversion of matter
  • Kinetic theory of matter
Question 2: (Salts & Numerical Calculation involving Chemical Equation)
  • Heating of carbonate salt
  • Writing chemical equation
  • Numerical calculation involving chemical equation: molar mass, no of particles, molar volume
Question 3: (Periodic Table of Elements)
  • Position of an element in periodic table
  • Group 18 elements
  • Chemical properties of group 1
  • Compare & explain the difference in electronegativity between two elements
Question 4:(Chemical Bonds)
  • Electron arrangement of an atom & ion
  • Formula of compound
  • Formation of covalent bond
  • Properties of covalent compound & ionic compound
Question 5: (Electrolytic Cell & Voltaic Cell)
  • Writing half equation of anion
  • Identify negative terminal & anode
  • Observation for both cells & explain
  • Chemical test to identify gas produced
Question 6: (Acid, Bases & Salts)
  • acid-base titration
  • calculation to determine molarity of acid
  • identify monoprotic acid & diprotic acid
  • confirmatory test for sulphate ion
Section B

Question 7: (Chemical Formulae & Equation, Carbon Compounds, Chemicals for Consumer)
  • Determine empirical formula & molecular formula of a hydrocarbon
  • Drawing the structural formula & naming the isomer of the hydrocarbon
  • Based on given food labels,  name the food additives  & determine the type of food additives & their funition.
Question 8:( Rate of Reaction)
  • The meaning of rate of reaction & identify the factor that affects the rate of reaction
  • Based on graf volume of gas released against time, compare the rate of reaction between two experiment by using the Collision Theory
  • Suggest one way to obtain a curve & explain using the Collision Theory
Question 9: (Electrochemistry)
  • Electrolysis of a concentrated aqueous solution: half equation at the cathode, formation of product at the anode & chemical test
  • Electroplating an iron spoon with silver
Questin 10: (Thermochemistry)
  • Heat of neutralisation of two different monoprotic acid with sodium hydroxide: explain the difference.
  • Determine the change in temperate based on given heat of neutralisaiton
  • Describe experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation.


Determing Melting Point

Example of Essay Question:
Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC.  Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the melting point of Z. Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined.

Requirement of the Question 

a) Procedure and diagram
b) A table showing time and temperature.
c) Sketch a graph temperature of substance Z against time.
d) Show how melting point of substance can be obtained from the graph.


Cave of Giant Crystals, Mexico

The crystals in the cave are made of selenite, a form of the common mineral gysum.  Slelenite is translucent & soft.  Research carried out by the scientist through uranium-thorium dating suggests the larget crystals are about 600 000 years old.

For more details, visit http://www.crystalinks.com/mexicocrystals.html


Perfect Score Chemistry Module Year 2010

Perfect Score Chemistry Year 2010 compiles common questions for Paper 2 & 3 SPM into 4 set. 

Set 1: Chapter 2, 3, 4, & 5 in Form 4
Set 2: Chapter 6 in Form 4 & Chapter 3 in Form 5
Set 3: Chapter 7 & 8 in Form 4; Chapter 1 & 4 in Form 5
Set 4 : Chapter 2 & 5 in Form 5, Chapter 9 in Form 4

To download,
This set is helpful especially to know better common questions in Paper 2 & 3 SPM.


Trial SPM Wilayah Persekutuan Chemistry Paper 3 2010

Yesterday, my students sat for the exam. There are only two questions.
  1. Determining heat of displacement of copper by different metals.
  2. Planning an experiment to determine the position of carbon based on it ability to reduce metal oxies.
The first question were somehow the same like one of the past year question(heat of neutralisation).  My both classses did carry out this experiment. But I wonder whether they can answer the question with high score. Best of luck to all of them which is going to sit for Chemistry Trial SPM Paper 1 & Paper 2 tomorrow!


Question Analysis Chemistry Trial SPM Paper 3 2010 from Different States

Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Reactivity of alkali metals towards oxygenEffect of metals on iron rustingEffect of size of zinc on the rate of reaction
Heat of combustion of various alcoholsReactivity of alkali metals towards oxygenEffect of catalyst on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
Reactivity of alkali metals with oxygenEffect of quantity of catalyst on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxideEffect of metals on the rusting of iron
Electrical conductivity of lead(II) bromide & naphthalene in molten stateEffect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of reactionInvestigate the effect of ethanoic acid & ammonia solution on the coagulation of latex
Negeri Sembilan
Construct the electrochemical series based on voltmeter reading by using different metals pair with copperDetermine the concentration of potassium hydroxide by using titration methodInvestigate the electrical conductivity of lead(II) bromide & naphthalene
Compare heat of combustion of alcoholsReactivity of halogens with iron woolInvestigate the effect of metals on iron rusting
End-point of titration
Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction
Construct ionic equation for the precipitation of silver chloride
The effect of other metals on rusting of iron
Effect of other metals on rusting of iron
Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction
Construct electrochemical series based on the potential difference of pairs of metals
Effect of concentration/catalyst on the rate of reaction between an acid & metal
Heat of combustion of various alcohols
Effect of the type of electrode on the product of electrolysis at anode
Kuala Lumpur
Heat of displacement of copper by different metals
determine the position of carbon in the reactivity series based on its ability to reduce metal oxides
Heat of combustion of alchols
Effect of catalyst on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
Relationship between concentration of nitric acid and its pH value
Investigate the difference in electrical conductivity between an ionic compound and a covalent compound
Effect of metal on rusting of iron
Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction


Trial Chemistry SPM 2010 from Different State

Please visit http://chngtuition.blogspot.com/2010/09/2010-spm-all-chemistry-state-trial-exam.html
to download Trial Chemistry SPM from

  1. Johor
  2. Perak
  3. Kedah
  4. Terengganu
  5. Perlis
  6. Kelantan
  7. Pahang
  8. Melaka
  9. Penang
  10. Negeri Sembiln
  11. Selangor
  12. Sabah
  13. Penang
  14. Selangor
  15. MRSM
  16. Kuala Lumpur
chem2u will update from time to time once chem2u find questions from other states too.


Chemistry Form 4 Finals Mallaca 2009

You may look at this set of question how the real format of  Paper 1, 2 & 3 looks like while preparing for the coming finals.

All the best, any doubts of the question, do leave a comment here. I''ll help to clarify the concepts.



Chemistry SPM Paper 3 Question Analysis from 2003 – 2009

Year Structure QuestionPlanning an Experiment
20091 Effect of type of electrode on the electrolysis of aqueous solution
2 Rate of reaction
1 Relationship between concentration of nitric acid & pH value
20081 Effect of ethanoic acid and ammonia solution on the coaagulation of latex1 Reactivity of lithium, sodium and potassium with water
20071 Exothermic & endothermic reaction1 Construct electrochemical series to determine factor that influence the difference in voltage
20061 Heat of neutralization1 Compare iron & steel from the aspect of hardness/resistant to corrosion
20051 Freezing point of naphthalene
2 Electrochemical series based on potential difference
1 Effect of alloying on the hardness of metal
2 How concentration affect the rate of reaction of acid with metal
20041 Empirical formula of magnesium oxide
2 Reactivity series of metals
1 Prepare esters from two different alcohol
20031 Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction
2 Construct ionic equations through continuous variation method
1 Compare the elasticity of vulcanized rubber & unvulcanized rubber


SPM 2007 Paper 3 Question 2 - Chemical Cells

Please attempt the question first. If you have any querry, don't hesitate to email me. 

Suggested answer, please click here.


Preparation of Soluble Salt - Copper(II) Sulphate

copper sulphate

The photo shows copper(II) sulphate prepared by one group of students in my chemistry class.
Copper(II) sulphate can be prepared by using one of the reactions
  1. sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide
  2. sulphuric acid and copper(II) carbonate
Chemical equation for the first equation:
  1. H2SO4 + CuO  --> CuSO4 + H2O
  2. H2SO4 + CuCO3  --> CuSO4 + H2O
The slide follows briefly shows the steps taken. The copper(II) oxide can be replaced by copper(II) carbonate too.

Preparation of copper sulphate

In SPM 2003, students are required to describe a laboratory experiment to prepare dry magnesium chloride based on given materials :
  • magnesium sulphate solutions,
  • dilute hydrochloric acid,
  • potassium carbonate solution

 This question is a bit tricky. Students need to consider few things before write their plan:
  1. Is magnesium chloride a soluble salt?
  2. What are reactants used to prepare magnesium chloride?
  3. Are the reactants required given in the list?
  4. How to make use of the given materials?(Hint: precipitation reaction)
  5. Explain the procedure in details.
Need any further guide, just write in the comment!

Krypton Bulb

krypton bulb
krypton bulb

Krypton like other argon gases is used in lighting.  Krypton bulb usually emits bright white light.


How Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction are Applied in Industrial Processes

Questions about the topic is frequently found in Paper 1 SPM. Students are given various choices of condition of reaction but students hardly to pick a correct answer. Normally when I teach rate of reaction, I ask my students to collect all related information and complete the table. They can revise it anytimes  especially last-minute revision.

Sometimes, this topic is asked in Paper 2 too. Students are asked to state the temperature, pressure & catalyst in a reaction and explain how does each factor affecting the rate of reaction by using collision theory.


Formation of Ionic Bond & Covalent Bond

Formation of chemical bond is one of the important concepts in chemistry. In Chemistry SPM, students are introduced ionic bond and covalent bond in when they were in form 4.

The following video shows the formation of ionic bond by using formation of sodium chloride as an example.
Ionic bond is the strong electrostatic force of attraction that holds the oppositely charged ions.

The following show samples of answer when explaining formation of ionic bond in essay Chemistry SPM.
  • Electron arrangement of sodium atom is 2.8.1
  • A sodium atom donates one electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement
  • A sodium ion, Na+ is formed
  • This electron is transferred to a chlorine atom with an electron arrangement of 2.8.7
  • A chlorine atom accepts electron from sodium atom to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement
  • Chloride ion, Cl-, is formed
  • The sodium ion, and chloride ion, are attracted to one another by a strong electrostatic force/ionic bond to form an ionic compound, sodium chloride, NaCl.

The following video show formation of covalent bond. 
A bond that is formed when a pair of valence electrons are shared between two non-metal atoms.
There are three type of of covalent bond :
  • single bond
  • double bond
  • triple bond

SPM Corner:
Electron arrangement for atom W : 2. 4
Electron arrangement for atom X : 2.8.7
Electron arrangemnt for atom Y :

Based on the given information, explain how two compounds can be formed from these elements based on their electron arrangements.

The two compounds should have different bond types. [10 marks]

Formation of Ionic Bond:
  • State the electron arrangement of both atoms.
  • Explain how each atom achieve stable electron arrangement. E.g. To achieve stable electrons arrangement, atom Y donates 2 electrons to form Y2+ ion while atom X donate 1 electron to form X+ ion 
  • Explain the ions formed are attracted by strong electrostatic force.
  • Give the formula of the compound formed.
  • Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.

Formation of Covalent Bond:
  • State the electron arrangemnt of and the number of valence electrons of each atoms.
  • Explain how many more electrons for each atom to achieve stable electron arrangement. E.g. Atom W need 4 electrons to achieve stable electron arrangement while atom Y needs 1 electron to achieve stable electron arrangement 
  • Explain how do the atoms share electrons. E.g. Atom W contributes 4 electrons for sharing while atom X contribute 1 electrons for sharing.  Each four Y atoms share 1 pair of electrons with one W atoms
  • State the formula of the compound formed.
  • Draw the electron arrangment of the compoud formed.

Definition of Isotopes

What's the definition of the isotopes? The video clip shows isotopes of hydrogen.

Sound simple, right? After watching the video clip, I hope you can identify some key words to define isotopes.

Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. or

atoms that have the same proton number but different nucleon number.

My students used to give their definition of isotopes as follows:
  1. same number of proton but different number of neutrons
  2. same proton number but different neutron number.
Sadly, their answers are not considered as a complete definition., The first answer didn't mention the most important keyword: atoms. The second answer used "neutron number" which is incorrect term.

Some examples of isotopes :
  1. carbon-12, carbon-13, carbon-14;
  2. oxygen-16, oxygen-17, oxygen-18;
  3. chlorine-35, chlorine-37.
  4. chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.
Isotopes are widely in our daily life. Can you give some examples of isotopes used in medicine, industry, science and archeology?
In fact, the similar question turned out in SPM 2005.


Young Chemist - Sc & Tech Week Year 2010

Young Chemist was actually a competition! Students who have successfullly carried out the task given and showed an excellent work will be awarded as Young Chemist.

The task given was on a chemistry-related environment issues. Students were required to plan an experiment to study the the given problems. Students were given 2 hours in the chemistry lab to carry out their experiment plan and writing their report.

Based on students' report,  I found out that students understands the problems given. However, they were hardly to identify a specific problem they wish to study. They were able to plan required materials, apparatus, procedures and tabulation of data for their experiment. But analysis & interpreting data were their weakest part. This is the part that should be polished up. Form 5 students were weak in this part too in their PEKA.

The Young Chemist were awarded to groups from 4A, 4E and 4H. Congratulations!!!

Students were preparing chemicals for their experiment.

Students were pondering what to do next.

Students were interpreting data based on collected observation.

Students were working hard in writing their report.


Heat of Combustion of Various Alcohols

Characteristics of Homologous Series

In Chemistry SPM, students were introduced with five homologous series: Alkane, Alkene, Alcohol, Carboxylic Acids and Esters.

The following is one of the Chemistry SPM 2009 questions related to homologous series.
The table shows some information about three members of a homologous series.
Homologous Series

Based on the table, state and explain five characteristics of a homologous series.                                        [10 marks]
  1. Members of the series can be represented by a general formula. Ethanol, propanol and butanal have the same general formula, CnH2n+1OH
  2. Successive members differ from each other by –CH2. The difference between propanol and ethanol is CH2 that has a relative molecular mass of 14.
  3. Physical properties change regularly with increasing number of carbon atoms. The boiling points of alcohols increase from ethanol, propanol to butanol.
  4. Members have similar chemical properties because they have same functional group. Ethanol, propanol and butanol undergo oxidatoin produce carboxylic acids.
  5. Members of the homologous series can be prepared using the same method.  Ethanol, propanol & butanol can be prepared by hydration of alkene.


9th Malaysia Technology Expo

On 6 Feb 2010, I went with 52 students to 9th Malaysia Technology Expo held at PWTC.  It was wonderful study trip. Different universities has their own booths displaying their latest finding in science and technology.

There were few booths that attracted my attention:

1. Using Mas Cotek as Copper(II) Absorbent

2. Polyethene/egg shell powder Composite
3. Polystyrene Composite as tiles

Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Today Hiroshima marked the 65th anniversary of atomic bomb attack. Some chemistry related facts about the making of atomic bomb:

  • The Hiroshima bomb which is called "Little Boy" used Uranium-235.
  • The Nagasaki bom, "Fat Man" made of Plutonium-239.
More information related to the atomic bomb & World World II, click here.


Chemistry Pamphlet Design Competition - Sc & Tech Week 2010

Chemistry Pamphlet Design was one of the activity for Science & Technology Week Year 2010.  Each group of students picked a topic in their chemistry and submitted their work in 2 weeks time.

Students' submission for Chemistry Pamphlet Design Competition.

Winners of the Pamphlet Design Competition
Left: : The Periodic Table from 5G studentsMunirah, Hayati, Fadhilah)
Right : Esters from 5H students(Ashikin, Izzati, Zafirah)

It was my first time organizing such activity. To my surprice, most students with the help of ICT, they showed ability to find related information and present them well.

However there is always room for improvement for the following years. As for me, I would prefer giving a theme, e.g. Contribution of Chemists, Chemicals for Consumer, Manufactured Substances in Industry. Each group will conduct a detailed study on one of the topic, take photos and organize & present their information in a creative way.

As for the students:
  • Avoid copying information 100% from any sources.
  • Choose only relevant information.
  • Using software like Microsoft Word/Publisher will help.
  • Think of the audience. Must be eye-catching.  Use a suitable layout, font & graphics/photo and colour contrast.


Cleansing Agents – SPM 2008


Diagram shows the apparatus used to investigate how to remove an oily stain from a cloth and the observation made from that investigation.

(i) Compare and explain the effectiveness of the cleaning action between

  • experiment I and III
  • experiment II and IV.

(ii) identify the cleaning agents, A and B. State which cleaning   agent is more effective.

Suggested answer

(i)    Experiment I and III

  • Both the cleaning agents A and B are effective in soft water. Soft water does not consist of calcium and magnesium ions.
  • Both dissolves in soft water.
  • They are able to lower the surface tension of water. The water wets the surface of the cloth thoroughly.

         Experiment II and IV

  • Cleaning agent A is not effective in hard water. Hard water consists of calcium and magnesium ions.
  • These ions react with the cleaning agent A to form an insoluble precipitate (scum). Formation of scum reduces the number of cleaning agent A molecules available for cleaning.
  • Cleaning agent B is effective both in soft water and hard water.
  • Cleaning agent B does not form precipitate (scum) in hard water.  Cleaning agent B form soluble salt in hard water. The cleaning agent B molecules are available for cleaning.

(ii) Cleaning agent A is soap; Cleaning agent B is detergent.

Detergent is more effective than soap.


Elelctrolytic Cell and Chemical Cells

In an electrolytic cell,
  • Anion in the electrolyte move to  anode(connected to the positve terminal of the battery).
  • Anions is selectively discharged by losing electrons(Depends at the concentration of ions in the electrolyte). In other words, anion is oxidized at anode. If metal electrodes are used instead of carbon electrodes, metal is oxidized to its metal ions by losing electrons.
  • Cations in the electrolyte move to cathode(connected to the negative terminal of the battery).
  • Cations which is at the lower postion in the Electrochemical Series is selectively discharged by gaining electrons. In other words, cations are reduced.

oxidation occurs at anode while
Reduction occurs at cathode.

In a chemical cell
  •  Electrode which is more electropositive is oxidized to its ions by loses electrons, and acts as negative terminal.
  • Electrons move through the external circuit and received by positive terminal.
  • Cations in the electrolytes get attracted to the positive terminal and reduced to metal by gaining electrons.
Oxidation occurs at negative terminal.
Reduction occurs at positive terminal.


Control Iron Rusting by Using More Electropositive Metal

The hull of the Titanic has rusted since it sank in 1912.

Ship hull is protected by rusting by bolting magnesium bar onto it.  How does magnesium bar protect the ship from rusting? Explain.                                                                 [2 marks]
  • Magnesium is more electropositive than iron. 
  • Magnesium loses electrons more easily than iron.
  • Mg --> Mg2+ + 2e-
  • Electrons move to iron. Therefore iron is protected by rusting

The same method is used controlling rusting of underground water pipes or steel utility pole. Blocks/stacks of magnesium is connected to the water pipes/steel utility pole by wires. Magnesium is  replaced from time to time when all magnesium corrodes.   This method is more known as sacrificial protection.


Peperiksaan Percubaan SBP SPM 2010

All the best! After the exam, the copy of the question paper and answer scheme will be available in this blog!


Photochromic Glass

*Photo taken from Rudy Project North America

Photochromic glass is one example of composite material.  Composite material is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances. The resulting material has properties that are superior than those of the original components.

A photochromic glass is produced by embelding a layer of silver halides(usually silver chloride) in glass or transparent plastic.

Photochromic glass darkens when is exposed to sunlight. When the light dims, it become transparent again. It is suitable for making optical lenses, windshields and windows.


Creative Way of Remembering Chemical Formulae of Ions

I found out this piece of note recently. The student is trying to remember the chemical formulae of ions. The method used is using mneumonics.  Menumonics is one of the ways that can dramatically improve our memory! If you have other interesting mneumonics, do share with me!


Students' Definition of Rate of Reaction

In one of the question in the recent examination, one question asked about the meaning of the rate of reaction. I compiled the answers from one of my class. The following are their answers:  

  1. Change amount of reactant or product against time
  2. Change in the amount of reactants against product formed
  3. Change of selective quantity of product or reactant against time
  4. How fast the reaction occur at particular time
  5. How fast reaction takes place in a reaction
  6. Measurement of the amount of change of reactant or products against time taken
  7. Rate of formation of product over time
  8. Rate of substance to react with solution
  9. Speed of a chemical reaction
  10. Speed of reaction of a substance in one second
  11. Amount of reactant that has been used up or the product that is formed in a unit of time
  12. The amount of product produced in a reaction to time
  13. The amount of products formed in a reaction per time
  14. The amount of reactant over a time
  15. The amount of reactant used up or the amount of product obtained per unit time
  16. The measurement of the change in amount of reactant or product against time
  17. The rate of change of reactant or product over time
  18. The rate of time that a substance is able to react completely with another substance
  19. The time taken for a reactant to react completely
  20. The time taken for the reaction occur
  21. Time for reactant to react to produce product
  22. Time or the speed of reaction to take place
  23. Time taken for the amount of reactant react to produce an amount of product
  24. Time taken for the reactant to be reacted
  25. Time taken needed for the volume to undergo chemical changes

NONE of them gave the same answers. Each of them has different understanding of the definition of Rate of Reaction.  But most of them have misunderstood the term! Only answer 3 give an accurate definition.  What a pity! Perhaps some of them did try to memorize during revision, but memorizing without understanding is not effective at all.
Let's have a look, what can I do to clarify this when I enter their class later.


Pertandingan Poster Minggu Sains & Teknologi 2010

Johan: Tan Ying Li, Tan Yi Han, Pavittrah a/p Mohanan

Naib Johan : Nurul Huda bt Azhar, Nursharina bt Mohd Yusof, Kharun niza Waznah bt Baharin

I received many entries from students during Minggu Sains & Teknologi 2010. To my surprise, my students are not only good in their chemistry concepts, they have talents to in arts too! Keep up the good job!


Saturated fat molecule or unsaturated fat molecule

Molecule A

Molecule B

Based on the structure for both fat molecules,
  1. Which molecule is a unsaturated fat molecule? Why?
  2. Which homologous series does molecule A belong to? Why?
  3. State two difference of both molecules.
  4. Which molecule can undergo catalytic hydrogenation? State the condition of the reaction.


Compare Vulcanised Rubber and Unvulcanised Rubber

This is one of the question in SPM 2006 Paper 3. The following photo might help to give you a hint to write the experiment plan.

For suggested answer, please click here.


Pahang Chemistry Module - Oxidation and Reduction

I found this document from Scribd posted by khayranizam.  It is useful for revision as the notes are compiled in the form of mind map.

More module on
Rate of reaction
Chemical Bonds
Manufacture Substance in Industry


Test for iron(II) ion and iron(III) ion

In my today lesson with form 5 students, I discussed the conversion of Fe2+ ion to Fe3+ ion by using oxidizing agents and conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+ ion by using reducing agents.   To my shock, my students were hardly name any chemicals used to test the presence of Fe2+ ion and Fe3+ ion. 

Some students complained that is hard to remember the facts. Some would said that they didn't carry out the test when they were in form 4. I'm wondering, any students instead of blaming others, being proactive thinking ways to remember the facts? So far, some of ex-students creating stories(huh? story on chemistry facts?), songs, pneumonics, colourful notes with diagrams/mindmap to remember this. They ended up enjoying the fun of learning.



Minggu Sains & Teknologi 2010

Suggested Topic for Pamphlet/Poster/PowerPoint Design
1. Chemical related careers
2. Uses of isotope in daily life
3. Contribution of scientist towards chemistry
4. Advantages & Disadvantages of various voltaic cell
5. Importance of recycling and systematic disposal of used batteries
6. Application of neutralisation in daily life
7. Uses of sulphuric acid
8. Uses of ammonia
9. Alloy
10. Polymers
11. Glass
12. Ceramics
13. Methane and its effects on everyday life
14. Isomerism
15. Homologous series
16. Uses of alcohols; misuse and abuse of alcohols
17. Uses of carboxylic acids
18. Esters; natural sources, uses
19. Effects of Fats on health
20. Uses of palm oil in food production
21. Food additives & Food label
22. Modern Medicine and its side effect
23. Traditional Medicine

Other topics must get approval from your chemistry teacher first.

Your pamphlet/poster/powerpoint desgin must be informative, with pictures, extra information from other resources and creative!

Public Speaking
Theme: Application of chemistry in daily life.
Time alocated: 5 minutes
Topic: Choose a topic related to the theme and explain with examples/latest information/technology. Perhaps elaborate more its benefit/misuses/effects to human being/environment.


Palm Oil Based Oleochemicals

This is a promotional video from Malaysia Palm Oil Councils. The video describes much in details the benefit of palm oil with many examples of oleochemicals derived from palm oil.


Why is Platinum So Expensive?

Platinum, Pt is one of the transitition elements. It is very expensive. Watch this video to find out the reason.

What are the special characteristics of platinum?


Definition of Redox Reaction

From chem2U

One way of remembering the defnition is by using mneumonics. The following is one example: OIL-RIG

Other example of mneumonics:

  1. "GEROA", "LEORA"—Gain Electron Reduction Oxidizing Agent, Lose Electron Oxidation Reducing Agent


SPM Corner - Alkenes


To view a list of isomers for all alkanes, please click here.

Compare Hexane and Hexene

Recently my students just carried out experiments to compare hexane(C6H14) and (C6H14) in terms of sootiness of flame during combustion. Filter papers are used to collect soot formed during the experiments.

It is obvious from the filter papers, hex-1-ene produces more soot than hexane during combustion. It is due to percentage of carbon content.   Though both hex-1-ene and hexane have 6 carbon atoms per molecule, but hex-1-ene has higher percentage of carbon content than hexane.